Moscow: 11,514,330; Saint Petersburg 4,848,742; Novosibirsk 1,473,737; Yekaterinburg 1,350,136; Nizhny Novgorod 1,250,615; Samara 1,164,896. Other cities with over 1m people include Omsk, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, and Rostov-on-Don.
Kaliningrad, Kavkaz, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Saint Petersburg, Vostochnyy
Area: 17,075,400 sq. km
Ranges from flat steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.
Population (2010 census): 141,945,966 April 2012 estimate 143,100,000
Density of Population: 8.3 persons (Per Square Kilometre)
Russia’s population is small relative to its size, and unevenly distributed, with the vast bulk in the European areas and the Ural regions. Russia faces one of the most challenging demographic declines in the world. The UN estimates that the current population will fall from a peak of 148m in 1991 to 128 million by 2020.
Population growth rate: -0.47% (2011 est.)
Orthodox Christianity; Islam; Judaism; Buddhism. There is also a strong atheistic tradition in Russia as a legacy of Communist rule.
81.5% Russians; 3.8% Tatars; 3% Ukrainians (more than 100 nationalities in all)
Russian, Tatar, other
Railways: 87,157 km
Roadways: 982,000 km
Number of Airports: 1,213 (2010)